Ladle Metallurgy Furnace (LMF)
An intermediate steel processing unit that further refines
the chemistry and temperature of molten steel while it is
still in the ladle. The ladle metallurgy step comes after
the steel is melted and refined in the electric arc or basic
oxygen furnace, but before the steel is sent to the continuous
Any costs that are associated with prior operations. Employee
liabilities (pensions and health care benefits) and environmental
cleanup costs usually are included under this moniker.
A process to flatten any shape deficiencies (wavy edges and
buckles) in the sheet, prior to final shipment. Most cold-rolled
sheet initially has a crowned cross-section that, if such
a shape is undesirable to the customer, must be flattened
in the leveling line.
Life Cycle Costing
An accounting method of costing where expenses are allocated
over the life of the product. Life cycle costs are often lower
for stainless steel than for alternatives despite a higher
initial outlay, because stainless products generally last
longer and require little maintenance.
Very thin steel sheet that has been temper-rolled or passed
through a cold-reduction mill. Light gauge steel normally
is plated with tin or chrome for use in food containers.
Pipe used in the surface transmission of oil, natural gas
and other fluids.
Classification of steel products that includes bar, rod and
structural products, that are "long", rather than "flat".
Steel with less than 0.005% carbon is more ductile (malleable):
It is capable of being drawn out or rolled thin for use in
automotive body applications. Carbon is removed from the steel
bath through vacuum degassing.